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11.
 
InstituciónInternational Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)18,1
Número páginas164
Descargar bajo http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RE_Power_Costs_2014_report.pdf
Resumen/Abstract The competitiveness of renewable power generation technologies continued improving in 2013 and 2014, reaching historic levels. Biomass for power, hydropower, geothermal and onshore wind can all
provide electricity competitively against fossil fuel-fired power generation. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power has also become increasingly competitive, with its levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) at utility scale falling by half in four years. Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014 aims to reduce uncertainty about the true costs of renewable power generation technologies, so that governments can be more ambitious and efficient in their policy support for renewables. As this comprehensive report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) underlines, perceptions that such technologies are expensive or uncompetitive are outdated, at best.  
Palabras claveCostos; Energía de biomasa; Energía eólica; Energía geotérmica; Energía hidraúlica; Energía solar; Nivel mundial
 
12.
 
InstituciónEnergy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP); Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)7,5
Número páginas179
Descargar bajo https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/21878/96499.pdf
Resumen/Abstract Nearly 3 billion people in the developing world continue to rely on solid fuel for their cooking needs with serious impacts on economic development, human health, and the environment. The WHO
estimates that exposure to household air pollution due to the use of solid fuels for cooking results in 4.3 million premature deaths and 110 million DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) every year. For the last four years, an international effort led by the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves with participation from the World Bank and other international organizations has been underway, spurring interventions around the globe with the objective of getting 100 million households to adopt clean and improved cooking solutions by 2020. The goal of universal energy access by 2030 under the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative has provided additional momentum to this effort. This report, developed by ESMAP in collaboration with the Alliance, builds a strong evidence-based case for accelerating clean cooking solutions in pursuit of sustainable development. It provides a comprehensive picture of the current state of the clean cooking sector. Building on the latest literature and using original research and analysis, the report maps sector demand and supply trends, and provides the first ever global baseline and market forecast for clean and improved cooking solutions. Additionally, the report suggests a number of steps that governments, donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector can take accelerate the adoptions of clean, efficient cooking stoves and fuels. The central message from the report is that the household cooking market has immense potential with households, that together already spend over US$100 billion annually on cooking fuel. While there remain formidable challenges to overcome, there is significant opportunity in the large and growing clean cooking market.  
Palabras claveAnálisis de la situación actual; Cocinas mejoradas; Cocinas solares; Energía de biomasa; Energía solar
 
13.
 
InstituciónUniversiteit Twente
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)2,1
Número páginas15
Descargar bajo http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Mekonnen-et-al-2015.pdf
Resumen/Abstract Water is essential for electricity and heat production. This study assesses the consumptive water footprint (WF) of electricity and heat generation per world region in the three main stages of the
production chain, i.e. fuel supply, construction and operation. We consider electricity from power plants using coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, uranium or biomass as well as electricity from wind, solar and geothermal energy and hydropower. The global consumptive WF of electricity and heat is estimated to be 378 billion m3 per year. Wind energy , solar energy through PV and geothermal energy have the smallest WFs, while biomass and hydropower have the largest. The WFs of electricity from fossil fuels and nuclear energy range between the extremes. The global weighted-average WF of electricity and heat is 4241 m3. Europe has the largest WF (22% of the total), followed by China (15%), Latin America (14%), the USA and Canada (12%), and India (9%). Hydropower (49%) and firewood (43%) dominate the global WF. Operations (global average 57%) and fuel supply (43%) contribute the most, while the WF of construction is negligible (0.02%). Electricity production contributes 90% to the total WF, and heat contributes 10%. In 2012, the global WF of electricity and heat was 1.8 times larger than that in 2000. The WF of electricity and heat from firewood increased four times, and the WF of hydropower grew by 23%. The sector's WF can be most effectively reduced by shifting to greater contributions of wind, PV and geothermal energy.  
Palabras claveEnergía de biomasa; Energía eólica; Energía geotérmica; Energía hidroeléctrica; Energía solar fotovoltaica; Generación de energía eléctrica; Huella de agua
 
14.
 
InstituciónInternational Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)5,6
Número páginas128
Descargar bajo http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Water_Energy_Food_Nexus_2015.pdf
Resumen/Abstract Renewable energy technologies can address trade-offs between water, energy and food, bringing substantial benefits in all three key sectors. This report from the International Renewable Energy Agency
(IRENA) looks at how adopting renewables can ease trade-offs by providing less resource-intensive energy services compared to conventional energy technologies. An energy system with substantial shares of renewable energy would be less water-intensive than one dependent on fossil fuels. Renewable energy technologies can boost water security by improving accessibility, affordability and safety. Integrating renewable energy in the agrifood supply chain helps to rein in cost volatility, bolster energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to long-term food sustainability. Modern bioenergy – sustainably and efficiently managed – could play an important role in these ongoing transformations.  
Palabras claveAbastecimiento de agua; Biogas; Brasil; Energía geotérmica; Energía solar; Nicaragua; Nivel mundial; Sector agropecuario
 
15.
 
InstituciónSNV
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)4,8
Número páginas21
Descargar bajo http://www.snvworld.org/sites/www.snvworld.org/files/images/bioslurry_always_means_profit_-_success_stories_from_the_tanzania_domestic_biogas_program1.compressed.pdf
Resumen/Abstract One of the outputs of a biodigester, next to the biogas, is bioslurry. This is the effluent of the organic matter remaining after the anaerobic digestion process. Since pathogens from the manure are
mostly eliminated and minerals become more readily available for take-up, bioslurry is a very good organic fertiliser. The structure and water retention capacity of the soil are improved, increasing farmers’ resilience against the impacts of climate change. More than just a co-benefit, the intrinsic value of bioslurry is more and more recognised.  
Palabras claveAfrica; Biodigestores; Biogas; Biolodo; Estudio de caso; Sector agropecuario
 
16.
 
InstituciónInternational Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)1,3
Número páginas28
Descargar bajo http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA-ETSAP_Tech_Brief_E05_Biomass%20for%20Heat%20and%20Power.pdf
Resumen/Abstract More than half of the total global renewable energy consumption today is based on biomass. This IRENA/IEA-ETSAP Technology Brief provides technical background analyses the potential and barriers for
market growth, and offers insights for policy makers on this key renewable energy technology. In the power sector, biomass is typically co-fired with coal in large-scale power plants and gasified or combusted in medium to small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Furthermore it provides heating (for space and cooking) and hot water in residential homes and process heat in industrial plants in the chemical, cement, pulp and paper, and food-processing industries Although this vital renewable energy resource is available in almost every country, new technology developments in cultivation, pre-treatment, collection and transport of biomass have increased the availability of feedstock that are sustainable and with high energy content, at affordable prices. Main challenges related to bioenergy is its sustainable supply and the management and optimisation of potential benefits and trade-offs, such as greenhouse gas emission savings, biodiversity, employment opportunities and competition with food.  
Palabras claveBarreras al crecimiento del mercado; Energía de biomasa; Tecnologías
 
17.
 
InstituciónWorld Resources Institute (WRI)
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)0,7
Número páginas44
Descargar bajo http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/avoiding_bioenergy_competition_food_crops_land.pdf
Resumen/Abstract Installment 9 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future shows that any dedicated use of land for growing bioenergy inherently comes at the cost of not using that land for growing food or animal feed, or
for storing carbon. It recommends several policy changes to phase out forms of bioenergy that use crops or that otherwise make dedicated use of land.  
Palabras claveBiocombustibles; Energía de biomasa; Nexo Agua-Energía-Alimentos; Nivel mundial; Política energética; Sector agropecuario; Uso de la tierra
 
18.
 
InstituciónCentre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria (CIMNE), Spain; Instituto Nacional de Eficencia Energética y Energías Renovables (INER), Ecuador et al
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)1,6
Número páginas11
Descargar bajo http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaime_Marti-Herrero/publication/276289890_The_influence_of_users%27_behavior_on_biogas_production_from_low_cost_tubular_digesters_A_technical_and_socio-cultural_field_analysis/links/5555ffcf08ae6fd2d8235bab.pdf
Resumen/Abstract The aim of this paper is to understand the influence of the user behavior on tubular digesters performance, through a technical and a social approach in the Bolivian context. Fifteen domestic
digesters were evaluated, from which 6 were installed in the Altiplano and other 6 in the Andean Valleys. Data about slurry temperature, feedstock and biogas quality were collected from these 12 digesters, while daily biogas production and feeding pattern were also monitored from further three digesters in the valleys. Because of changes in user behavior along the monitoring period and particular characteristics of the digesters monitored, 5 complete patterns of biogas production and digester management were established. Furthermore, the results of a socio-cultural study with Andean families about the perception of poverty, their needs and the role played by digesters in their expectations in improving life quality, are correlated to the obtained technical data. The technical evaluation shows how the digester management seems to have a seasonal performance throughout the year according to the agricultural calendar. This means that families are more interested in using bioslurry in crops and agricultural improvements than in the use of biogas. The Bolivian government subsidy on liquefied gas seems to be one of the key issues to understand these results. Finally, data also reveals how the thermal behavior of tubular digesters adapted to cold climate that use a passive solar design, is similar to the thermal behavior of valley digesters, and therefore intends to add the same passive heating techniques for warm and tropical climates, to increase slurry temperatures and achieve a higher biogas production.  
Palabras claveAmérica Latina; Análisis sociocultural; Biodigestores; Biogas; Bolivia; Energía de biomasa
 
19.
 
InstituciónInternational Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Publicado 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)8,9
Número páginas68
Descargar bajo http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_GlobalAtlas_World_of_Renewables_2015.pdf
Resumen/Abstract The Global Atlas for Renewable Energy (Global Atlas) aims to close the gap between countries with access to the datasets, expertise and financial support to evaluate their renewable energy potential,
and those lacking such elements. As of January 2015, a total of 67 countries and more than 50 institutes and partners were contributing to the initiative, which is coordinated by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The Global Atlas facilitates a first screening for areas of opportunity for more detailed assessments. It enables the user to overlay information listed in a catalogue of more than 1,000 datasets, and to identify areas of interest for further prospection. This brochure presents an extract of the datasets hosted by the Global Atlas. All information in the booklet is also available through the Global Atlas interface, where IRENA is continuously adding information to the system. The interface includes maps on solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy resources, along with one marine energy map. The datasets will eventually encompass all renewable energy resources, providing the first-ever global coverage in a resource-assessment atlas of this kind. IRENA is grateful to the data providers of the Global Atlas for making this publication possible.  
Palabras claveEnergía de biomasa; Energía eólica; Energía geotérmica; Energía solar; Energías renovables; Potenciales
 
20.
 
InstituciónComisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL); Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores de Noruega
Publicado Santiago de Chile, 2015
Título de la serie
ISBN o ISSN
Tamaño del Archivo (MB)2,0
Número páginas111
Descargar bajo http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/37629/S1421128_es.pdf
Resumen/Abstract El presente estudio tiene por objeto relacionar la problemática del desarrollo sostenible con la explotación de gas natural no convencional a nivel general y en específico para los países
seleccionados.  
Palabras claveAmérica Latina y el Caribe; Argentina; Brasil; Colombia; Desarrollo sostenible; Energía de biomasa; Gas natural; México
 
 
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